The EU and its Member States are among the approximately 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU officially ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, from which at least 55% of global emissions escape, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. The Paris Agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After several European Union states ratified the agreement in October 2016, enough countries that had ratified the agreement were producing enough greenhouse gases worldwide for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.  Date of conclusion of the agreement on 5. In October 2016, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the goals. we will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.
It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.   The Paris Agreement is the year of COP21, the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), which was held in Paris from 30 November to 12 December 2015. The agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015. Paris was followed by COP22 in Marrakech. The Paris Agreement was ratified a few days before the start of the summit and three documents emerged in accordance with the Paris Commitments. At the same time, however, the United States began to express caution about any changes. At COP23 in Bonn, progress was made in the functioning of the Paris Agreement in practice (the Paris Regulation) and countries agreed to exchange best practices in the framework of the so-called Talanoa dialogue. In addition, a platform was launched to promote participation and dialogue with local communities and indigenous groups, and gender policy and women`s relationship with climate change were on the agenda. The Kyoto Protocol was threatened after negotiations failed in November 2000 and the United States withdrew in March 2001, with Washington claiming that the protocol was not in the country`s “economic interest”. In July 2001, negotiators in Bonn made breakthroughs in green technologies, agreements on emissions trading and trade-offs on the inclusion of carbon sinks (natural reservoirs that absorb more carbon than they release).
In October, countries agreed on rules to meet the Kyoto Protocol`s targets, paving the way for its entry into force. The first Conference of the Parties (COP 1) was held in Berlin and an agreement was reached to hold an annual meeting to monitor global warming and reduce emissions of polluting gases. Germany is one of the countries most committed to the environment, but the first year of the conference was only a first contact with reality for the countries and their policies. “The road that has been covered since COP1 in Berlin in 1995 is long and profound, but despite the failure to reach agreements at subsequent summits, they have all brought elements that have helped us to be on the verge of entering into force of the Paris Agreement at the end of 2019. International climate negotiations are organized by the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). .